Below you will find 5 brief passage

Below you will find 5 brief passages that contain arguments. Put in [brackets]: the conclusion of the argument. Underline (underscore): the premise (or premises) of the argument. Put in bold-italics: premise-indicator and conclusion-indicator words. (Do not tell me what the “Question” is, and do not provide a list of extra “basic assumptions.” We will do those later.) Remember that some arguments are still arguments even if they are lacking indicator words. Be on your toes. Each of the five passages is worth 4 points (total, 5×4=20 points). Do not copy the passage. Merely insert the symbols into the passage provided to you on this exam sheet. Also: You are not asked whether the argument is good or bad. Reserve judgment.

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Here’s an example from p. 15, textbook (there are more, pp. 21-30; study them) – an argument (short paragraph) in which [brackets], underlining, and bold-italics are used:

Since it would increase the number of pet adoptions per year if they did so, and because it would also probably limit the number of gift-pets unwanted and abandoned by children who are unprepared or unwilling to take proper care of them, hence [people who are considering purchasing puppies or kittens as presents for children at birthdays or Christmas should visit animal shelters and pet adoption centers before buying a gift-pet.]

In 1965, there were 47,000 road fatalities in the United States. By 1984, there were only 44,250 fatalities. That is still far too many. The reductions between 1965 and 1984 were due primarily to increased federal requirements for motor vehicle safety. So, even stricter federal safety controls should be required.
Galileo’s hypothesis about heliocentrism should be suppressed. The Biblical account in Ecclesiastes clearly states that the sun rises and sets and hastens to the place where it will rise again. God’s words in the Bible point to geocentrism.
I think it is safe to assume that anything that indicates an increased risk of heart attack should be taken very seriously by anyone over forty. So high levels of low-density lipids in the bloodstream ought to be taken seriously by such people, because these lipids definitely are indicators of increased risk.
The Central European country Slovenia must be a former part of Communist Yugoslavia. This is because Slovenia is not merely Central European but also a Balkan country that is now politically independent. And don’t forget that all the former parts of Yugoslavia have by now become independent Balkan countries.
A survey was recently taken in which a large number of names were randomly selected from the white-pages telephone book of Philadelphia. Whoever answered the phone was asked whether they preferred Trump, Clinton, or John Fry in the presidential race. Over half the respondents picked Fry. But many voters do not have listed telephone numbers and thus had no chance of being selected. The result of the survey was, therefore, unreliable.
[Two points extra-credit.] I should totally call Joanne to ask her to take good notes in Marketing tomorrow. This bug I caught is wearing me out; I can’t even hold a pencil. I’m also dizzy from the fever caused by the infection. I hope she didn’t come down with the same thing. What a bummer that would be!

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